dialogues concerning natural religion part 2 summary
Demea says that people ought to "humble [themselves] in his august presence ... conscious of [their] frailties [and] adore in silence his infinite perfections.". According to the argument, natural objects and human-made objects are both well-ordered and operate toward the fulfillment of a specific goal. The crux of Part 2 centers on Philo refuting Cleanthes's examples, warning that analogies made between natural objects are not always as apt as they may appear to be. Because it has no evolutionary function, it would not be selected for in a natural selection process. At this point, it seems that Philo has shown that the argument from design is manifestly invalid. Philo uses scientific examples to illustrate his point, and Philo adds emphasis to his main point by showing outrage that Cleanthes would compare the universe to a house. In this way, natural objects, such as plants and planets, resemble human-made objects, such as, skyscrapers and submarines. In part V, Philo argues that even if we can infer anything from the argument from design, it is not what we want to be able to infer. Cleanthes deploys this same sort of reasoning in Part 2. He thinks he can prove that, even though we do not have any direct experience of God's attributes and operations, there is enough evidence in nature to allow us to draw justified conclusions about what God is like. (2) All machines we know of are created by intelligence (human intelligence). Some order, such as that found in organic bodies, is caused by generation and vegetation. Summary Summary In Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion Hume explores whether religious belief can be rational. On the other hand, intelligent design arguments claim that the successful characteristics of living creatures appear all at once, because of the handiwork of an intelligent creator. God, must be similar to a human designer, only much more perfect, in proportion with the greater perfection of his art. Cleanthes argues the position of empirical theism—the position that we can come to know about God by reasoning from the evidence afforded us by nature—against these two opponents. Together, Demea and Philo paint a bleak picture of our universe. Second, the analogy between the universe and a machine does not necessarily work because it is not an analogy between two separately existing entities, but between the universe as a whole and certain parts of the universe (i.e. Cleanthes disagrees with Demea and Philo. Because Hume is an empiricist (i.e. December 6, 2019. The only real point of disagreement, he continues, is how strong this resemblance really is; what separates the atheist from the theist is only a question over the degree of analogy between man and God. Now Philo examines the idea of God's moral attributes (for instance, his goodness) and asks whether these can be inferred through an investigation of nature. (2019, December 6). He believes, in fact, that we cannot ever know the nature of God at all because God's nature is inherently beyond the capacity of human comprehension. First, the analogy between machines and the universe is weak at best, and as such any reasoning based on this analogy must also be weak. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion: Part II In Part I of his Dialogues, Hume introduces his three speakers, who each take a distinct philosophical approach to religion. A sailboat moves across the sea by taking advantage of the wind to move humans across the earth. A posteriori proofs are only probable proofs, not definite proofs. Chapter Summary for David Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, part 4 summary. man and the objects he manipulates). The argument from design seems to be an argument by analogy, but it does not work even under this rubric. In either case we have to ask how and why this happens. It is only when we give an a priori demonstration that we can prove something with certainty. The teleological arguments of the 16th and 17th centuries stemmed from earlier work by St. Thomas Aquinas, the 13th-century theologian, who argued that any object that progressed toward a clear and specific goal either itself possessed knowledge or was guided by an entity that possessed knowledge. Web. In parts X and XI, Philo gives his most famous and most decisive arguments against empirical theism. Accessed November 26, 2020. https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Dialogues-Concerning-Natural-Religion/. Through dialogue, three philosophers named Demea, Philo, and Cleanthes debate the nature of God's existence. Hence, there is no way to make a supportable claim about the nature of God. In Course Hero. 26 Nov. 2020. Philo, the philosophical skeptic, agrees with Demea that God is incomprehensible and provides the most convincing arguments for this position. someone who thinks that all knowledge comes through experience), he thinks that a belief is rational only … someone who thinks that all knowledge comes through experience), he thinks that a belief is rational only if it is sufficiently supported by experiential evidence. It is no easier to understand how God's thoughts might set the world in order than it is to understand how the material world might be its own source of order. A summary of Part X (Section6) in David Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. One famous example of this argument, due to Michael Behe, focuses on the cilium of protozoa. In the Dialogues Hume states this idea as, "[f]rom similar effects we infer similar causes." Millions of books are just a click away on BN.com and through our FREE NOOK reading apps. Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Whether or not these names reference specific philosophers, ancient or otherwise, remains a topic of scholarly dispute. Additionally, inferences drawn from these analogies cannot always be applied under other circumstances. Though we have never experienced God, we have experienced machines and we know a thing or two about them. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion and what it means.
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