callosobruchus maculatus bean preference
One set of models combines the process of divergent selection for resource use with the evolution of assortative mating. As a measure of assortative mating, we used the heterozygote deficiency index, I = 1- Hetobs/Hetexp , which is zero in the case of no assortative mating, and one if there is total reproductive isolation. The most likely explanation for the result is assortative mating based on resource use, as we were unable to find any selection acting on heterozygotes. The deficit of heterozygotes in the early generations did not correspond to a lower viability of heterozygotes, as evident when comparing the number of adults that emerged of the different morphs (brown morph 548.0±45.1,; intermediate 512.0±28.0; black 459.3±4.09, mean ± SE number of adults, P = 0.67, Kruskal-Wallis test). No, Is the Subject Area "Speciation" applicable to this article? Here a preference for a new resource might evolve and with that, a preference for mates. e14628. Other possible factors facilitating the evolution of isolation would be longer periods of allopatry, the build up of local adaptation or reduced migration upon secondary contact. This suggests that the evolution of assortative mating in this system has a strong stochastic component, probably as a result of which particular genes were present at the time the experiment started. However, it has been shown that a host preference can indeed evolve in the absence of local adaptation and that assortative mating, and possibly reproductive isolation can result as a consequence . We tested explicitly for the presence of disruptive selection (see below). In a two-choice situation, the beetles showed a strong preference for the Californian blackeyed bean variety to oviposit on. Third, inbreeding could also cause deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, for example, if the new populations were founded by only a few individuals, i.e. Citation: Rova E, Björklund M (2011) Can Preference for Oviposition Sites Initiate Reproductive Isolation in Callosobruchus maculatus? The resulting reduced gene flow between the different strains remained for two generations after contact before being overrun by disassortative mating. Population size should be effective population size (Ne), but as we had no information on this, we used a Bayesian approach that we implemented in WinBugs . Our study includes selection experiments using different host plants and test key predictions concerning models of speciation based on host plant choice, such as the evolution of host use (preference and performance) and assortative mating. It has also been found that the beetle will often s… 2 0 obj (2013) was used. PLoS ONE 6(1): 3 0 obj Since we did not obtain this pattern after only one generation on a novel resource, the result is unlikely to be a result of larval conditioning or maternal effects. The funders had no deal in study design, data collection, and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. In our experiment, selection against hybrids is lacking and as assortative mating cannot take a value larger than one, this threshold is not passed. if the effective population size was very low in the tests. If this mating is excluded the difference is no longer significant (brown: 454±51 sec; black: 585±39 sec, U = 24.5, P = 0.058, Mann-Whitney U-test). To discriminate between assortative mating based on the resource used during the selection period and that based on the colour morph, we measured the mate choice of 20 virgin females from the base population toward males from different colour morphs stemming from the selected lines. These studies were all selection experiments for different environmental conditions such as selection for positive or negative geotaxis in houseflies, selection for differential temperature and humidity in Drosophila, and selection for spatiotemporal habitats, phototactic and geotactic behaviour in Drosophila -. The plastic circular box having diameter 18.2 cm was divided into six equal parts (sections) same in shape and size with a … If maternal effects were in fact an issue, the number of eggs laid would be significantly higher on the alternative resource (M) compared to the original one (BE), as the progeny would choose the same host plant as their mother. To test whether assortative mating evolved, we placed colour morphs selected on alternative resources together on a mixture of the two bean types. We terminated the experiment after eight generations, and seven lines showed a significant excess of heterozygotes compared to Hardy-Weinberg expectations at that point (mean I = −0.20±0.052; Figure 2e). Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. In this paper, we experimentally test some key predictions derived from the models above, such as the development of host use (preference and performance) and assortative mating, and in particular the interaction between the two. After egg-laying, we separated the resources and counted the number of eggs. Colour seemed to be neutral both with regard to host preference and host performance, as the mean number of eggs laid on the two substrates did not differ between females of the two colour morphs (brown: 65.9±5.33; black: 61.0±4.61, U = 48.5, P = 0.70, Mann-Whitney U-test), nor did the mean number of individuals hatched from the two substrates differ between the two morphs (brown: 61.3±5.03; black: 56.7±4.35, U = 42.5, P = 0.42, Mann-Whitney U-test). The two different morph types were allowed to mate freely and females were allowed to choose on which type of resource to deposit their egg load. To account for sampling error, we applied a Bayesian approach using WinBugs 1.4.1.
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